Indianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Indianerreservat der USA inne und sind zahlenmäßig die größte indianische Nation. Etwas indianische Folklore muss sein: Ein Native American bereitet sich während dem Tag der indigenen Völker in Randalls Island, New York. Es ist das erste Mal in der Geschichte, dass ein Indianer diesen Vorsitz innehat. Inwieweit dadurch die auch heute noch nicht beendete Kontroverse darüber.
Indianer - 3,5 bis 4 Millionen leben in NordamerikaHeute wird in den USA überwiegend der Begriff Native Americans benutzt. Im Deutschen wird der Begriff Indianer manchmal ausschließlich auf die indianischen. Es ist das erste Mal in der Geschichte, dass ein Indianer diesen Vorsitz innehat. Inwieweit dadurch die auch heute noch nicht beendete Kontroverse darüber. Indianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Indianerreservat der USA inne und sind zahlenmäßig die größte indianische Nation.
Indianer Usa Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoIm Land der Lakota Sioux - Arthur Honegger entdeckt sein unbekanntes Amerika (1/4) - Doku - SRF DOK
In , the American Revolutionary War began as the colonists sought self-government and independence from the British.
The majority of the fighting took place near the East Coast, but the Patriot military officer George Rogers Clark called for an army to help fight the British in the west.
During the war, Clark managed to cut off British troops, who were attacking the eastern colonists from the west.
His success is often credited for changing the course of the American Revolutionary War. In , Congress separated Ohio from the Northwest Territory, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory.
Starting with the Battle of Fallen Timbers in and the Treaty of Greenville in , Native American titles to Indiana lands were extinguished by usurpation, purchase, or war and treaty.
About half the state was acquired in the Treaty of St. Mary's from the Miami in Purchases were not complete until the Treaty of Mississinewas in acquired the last of the reserved Native American lands in the northeast.
A portrait of the Indiana frontier about The frontier was defined by the Treaty of Fort Wayne in , adding much of the southwestern lands around Vincennes and southeastern lands adjacent to Cincinnati, to areas along the Ohio River as part of U.
Other settlements included Clarksville across from Louisville , Vevay, and Corydon along the Ohio River, the Quaker Colony in Richmond on the eastern border, and Conner's Post later Connersville on the east central frontier.
Indianapolis would not be populated for 15 more years, and central and northern Indiana Territory remained wilderness populated primarily by Indigenous communities.
Only two counties in the extreme southeast, Clark and Dearborn, had been organized by European settlers. Land titles issued out of Cincinnati were sparse.
In , the Shawnee tribal chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa encouraged other indigenous tribes in the territory to resist European settlement.
Tecumseh was killed in during the Battle of Thames. After his death, armed resistance to United States control ended in the region. Most Native American tribes in the state were later removed to west of the Mississippi River in the s and s after US negotiations and the purchase of their lands.
Corydon , a town in the far southern part of Indiana, was named the second capital of the Indiana Territory in May in order to decrease the threat of Native American raids following the Battle of Tippecanoe.
An Enabling Act was passed to provide an election of delegates to write a constitution for Indiana.
On June 10, , delegates assembled at Corydon to write the constitution, which was completed in 19 days. Jonathan Jennings was elected the fledling state's first governor in August President James Madison approved Indiana's admission into the union as the nineteenth state on December 11, Many European immigrants went west to settle in Indiana in the early 19th century.
The largest immigrant group to settle in Indiana were Germans , as well as many immigrants from Ireland and England. Following statehood, the new government worked to transform Indiana from a frontier into a developed, well-populated, and thriving state, beginning significant demographic and economic changes.
In , the state's founders initiated a program, the Indiana Mammoth Internal Improvement Act , that led to the construction of roads, canals , railroads and state-funded public schools.
The plans bankrupted the state and were a financial disaster, but increased land and produce value more than fourfold. Among its provisions were a prohibition on public debt, as well as the extension of suffrage to African-Americans.
During the American Civil War , Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the affairs of the nation.
Indiana was the first western state to mobilize for the United States in the war, and soldiers from Indiana participated in all the war's major engagements.
The state provided infantry regiments, 26 batteries of artillery and 13 regiments of cavalry to the Union. In , Indiana was assigned a quota of 7, men to join the Union Army.
Before the war ended, Indiana had contributed , men. After the war, Indiana remained a largely agricultural state. Post-war industries included mining, including limestone extraction; meatpacking; food processing, such as milling grain, distilling it into alcohol; and the building of wagons, buggies, farm machinery, and hardware.
With the onset of the industrial revolution , Indiana industry began to grow at an accelerated rate across the northern part of the state. With industrialization, workers developed labor unions and suffrage movements arose in relation to the progress of women.
The construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the start of auto-related industries were also related to the auto industry boom.
During the s, Indiana, like the rest of the nation, was affected by the Great Depression. The economic downturn had a wide-ranging negative impact on Indiana, such as the decline of urbanization.
The Dust Bowl further to the west led many migrants to flee to the more industrialized Midwest. Governor Paul V. McNutt 's administration struggled to build a state-funded welfare system to help overwhelmed private charities.
During his administration, spending and taxes were both cut drastically in response to the Depression, and the state government was completely reorganized.
McNutt ended Prohibition in the state and enacted the state's first income tax. On several occasions, he declared martial law to put an end to worker strikes.
Industry became the primary employer, a trend that continued into the s. Urbanization during the s and s led to substantial growth in the state's cities.
The auto, steel and pharmaceutical industries topped Indiana's major businesses. Indiana's population continued to grow after the war, exceeding five million by the census.
Welsh adopted its first sales tax of two percent. In , the Census Bureau reported Indiana's population as The five nuclear weapons on board were burned, including one 9-megaton thermonuclear weapon , causing radioactive contamination of the crash area.
Beginning in , a series of amendments to the state constitution were proposed. With adoption, the Indiana Court of Appeals was created and the procedure of appointing justices on the courts was adjusted.
The oil crisis created a recession that hurt the automotive industry in Indiana. Companies such as Delco Electronics and Delphi began a long series of downsizing that contributed to high unemployment rates in manufacturing in Anderson , Muncie , and Kokomo.
The restructuring and deindustrialization trend continued until the s, when the national and state economy began to diversify and recover.
Much of its appearance is a result of elements left behind by glaciers. Central Indiana is mainly flat with some low rolling hills except where rivers cut deep valleys through the plain, like at the Wabash River and Sugar Creek and soil composed of glacial sands, gravel and clay, which results in exceptional farmland.
In northwest Indiana there are various sand ridges and dunes, some reaching nearly feet in height. Southern Indiana is characterized by valleys and rugged, hilly terrain, contrasting from much of the state.
Here, bedrock is exposed at the surface and isn't buried in glacial till like further north. Because of the prevalent Indiana limestone , the area has many caves, caverns, and quarries.
Joseph, and Maumee rivers. The Wabash River , which is the longest free-flowing river east of the Mississippi River , is the official river of Indiana.
There are about lakes listed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. In the past, almost all of Indiana had a humid continental climate , with cold winters and hot, wet summers;  only the extreme southern portion of the state lay within the humid subtropical climate , which receives more precipitation than other parts of Indiana.
Temperatures generally diverge from the north and south sections of the state. The growing season typically spans from days in the north to days in the south.
While droughts occasionally occur in the state, rainfall totals are distributed relatively equally throughout the year. Lake effect snow accounts for roughly half the snowfall in northwest and north central Indiana due to the effects of the moisture and relative warmth of Lake Michigan upwind.
In a report, Indiana was ranked eighth in a list of the top 20 tornado-prone states based on National Weather Service data from through Indiana is one of 13 U.
Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century. At present most of the state observes Eastern Time ; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time.
Debate continues on the matter. Before , most of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time DST. Since April the entire state observes DST.
Indiana is divided into 92 counties. As of [update] , the state includes 16 metropolitan and 25 micropolitan statistical areas , incorporated cities, towns, and several other smaller divisions and statistical areas.
Indianapolis is the capital of Indiana and its largest city. The state's population density was In , Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 7.
German is the largest ancestry reported in Indiana, with Persons citing American Population growth since has been concentrated in the counties surrounding Indianapolis, with four of the five fastest-growing counties in that area: Hamilton , Hendricks , Johnson , and Hancock.
The other county is Dearborn County , which is near Cincinnati , Ohio. Hamilton County has also grown faster than any county in the states bordering Indiana Illinois , Michigan , Ohio and Kentucky , and is the 20th-fastest growing county in the country.
With a population of ,, Indianapolis is the largest city in Indiana and the 12th-largest in the United States, according to the Census. Three other cities in Indiana have a population greater than , Fort Wayne , , Evansville , and South Bend , Gary and Hammond have seen the largest population declines regarding the twenty largest cities since , with a decrease of Indianapolis has the largest population of the state's metropolitan areas and the 33rd-largest in the country.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Based on population estimates for , 6. Census demographic data for Indiana, the median age is Although the largest single religious denomination in the state is Catholic , members , most of the population are members of various Protestant denominations.
The largest Protestant denomination by number of adherents in was the United Methodist Church with , The study found 16 percent of Indiana is affiliated with no religion.
Indiana is home to the Benedictine St. Meinrad Archabbey , one of two Catholic archabbeys in the United States and one of 11 in the world.
Two conservative denominations, the Free Methodist Church and the Wesleyan Church , have their headquarters in Indianapolis as does the Christian Church.
Indiana has a constitutional democratic republican form of government with three branches: the executive, including an elected governor and lieutenant governor; the legislative, consisting of an elected bicameral General Assembly; and the judicial, the Supreme Court of Indiana, the Indiana Court of Appeals and circuit courts.
The Governor of Indiana serves as the state's chief executive and has the authority to manage the government as established in the Constitution of Indiana.
The governor and the lieutenant governor are jointly elected to four-year terms, with gubernatorial elections running concurrent with United States presidential elections , , , , etc.
The governor can call special sessions of the General Assembly and select and remove leaders of nearly all state departments, boards and commissions.
Other notable powers include calling out the Indiana Guard Reserve or the Indiana National Guard in times of emergency or disaster, issuing pardons or commuting the sentence of any criminal offenders except in cases of treason or impeachment and possessing an abundant amount of statutory authority.
The lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Senate and ensures the senate rules are acted in accordance with by its constituents.
The lieutenant governor votes only when needed to break ties. If the governor dies in office, becomes permanently incapacitated, resigns or is impeached, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.
If both the governor and lieutenant governor positions are unoccupied, the Senate President pro tempore becomes governor.
The Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly and the House of Representatives is the lower house. Both the Senate and the House can introduce legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not authorized to initiate legislation that will affect revenue.
Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but both houses must pass them before they can be submitted to the Governor.
The General Assembly has no authority to create legislation that targets a particular community. It also can oversee the activities of the executive branch of the state government, has restricted power to regulate the county governments within the state, and has exclusive power to initiate the method to alter the Indiana Constitution.
The governor selects judges for the supreme and appeal courts from a group of applicants chosen by a special commission. After serving for two years, the judges must acquire the support of the electorate to serve for a year term.
Local circuit courts are where most cases begin with a trial and the consequence is decided by the jury. The Supreme Court has original and sole jurisdiction in certain areas including the practice of law, discipline or disbarment of Judges appointed to the lower state courts, and supervision over the exercise of jurisdiction by the other lower courts of the State.
The state is divided into 92 counties , which are led by a board of county commissioners. The remaining two counties, Dearborn and Ohio, are combined into one circuit.
Many counties operate superior courts in addition to the circuit court. In densely populated counties where the caseload is traditionally greater, separate courts have been established to solely hear either juvenile, criminal, probate or small claims cases.
The establishment, frequency and jurisdiction of these additional courts varies greatly from county to county. There are 85 city and town courts in Indiana municipalities, created by local ordinance, typically handling minor offenses and not considered courts of record.
County officials elected to four-year terms include an auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner and clerk of the circuit court.
All incorporated cities in Indiana have a mayor and council form of municipal government. Towns are governed by a town council and townships are governed by a township trustee and advisory board.
Among individual categories, Indiana ranked above average in budget transparency 1 , government digitization 6 , and fiscal stability 8 , and ranked average in state integrity From to , a resident of Indiana was included in all but one presidential election.
Indiana Representative William Hayden English was nominated for vice president and ran with Winfield Scott Hancock in the election.
Hendricks was elected vice president in He served until his death on November 25, , under President Grover Cleveland. He remains the only President from Indiana.
Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks was elected vice president in , serving under President Theodore Roosevelt until Marshall , who served as vice president from until Indiana has long been considered a Republican stronghold,   particularly in Presidential races.
Indiana was one of only ten states to support Republican Wendell Willkie in Bush won the state by a wide margin while the election was much closer overall.
The state has supported a Democrat for president only five times since Twenty years later, Franklin D.
Roosevelt won the state again in Johnson over Republican Barry Goldwater. While only five Democratic presidential nominees have carried Indiana since , 11 Democrats were elected governor during that time.
Before Mitch Daniels became governor in , Democrats had held the office for 16 consecutive years. Indiana elects two senators and nine representatives to Congress.
The state has 11 electoral votes in presidential elections. Historically, Republicans have been strongest in the eastern and central portions of the state, while Democrats have been strongest in the northwestern part of the state.
Occasionally, certain counties in the southern part of the state will vote Democratic. Marion County, Indiana's most populous county, supported the Republican candidates from to , before backing the Democrats in the , , , and elections.
Indiana's second-most populous county, Lake County, strongly supports the Democratic party and has not voted for a Republican since Five Indiana cities were mentioned in the study.
On the liberal side, Gary was ranked second and South Bend came in at Among conservative cities, Fort Wayne was 44th, Evansville was 60th and Indianapolis was 82nd on the list.
Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division , approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington , which is the third largest naval installation in the world, comprising approximately square miles of territory.
The Army's Newport Chemical Depot , which is now closed and turning into a coal purifier plant. Indiana was formerly home to two major military installations; Grissom Air Force Base near Peru realigned to an Air Force Reserve installation in and Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, now closed, though the Department of Defense continues to operate a large finance center there Defense Finance and Accounting Service.
Indiana has an extensive history with auto racing. The name of the race is usually shortened to "Indy " and also goes by the nickname "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing".
The race attracts more than , people every year, making it the largest single day sporting event in the world.
Indiana is also host to a major unlimited hydroplane racing power boat race circuits in the major H1 Unlimited league, the Madison Regatta Madison, Indiana.
Muncie has produced the most per capita of any American city, with two other Indiana cities in the top ten. Although James Naismith developed basketball in Springfield , Massachusetts in , high school basketball was born in Indiana.
In , Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15, screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the center of the sport.
Many other Indians had no means of returning to India. One such immigrant, Vaisho Das Bagai, committed suicide in despair: "The return migration was large enough to render questionable the idea of immigration as a one-way system.
After the Immigration Act of , Indian immigration into the U. Illegal entry through the Mexican border became the way of entering the country for Punjabi immigrants.
California's Imperial Valley had a large population of Punjabis who assisted these immigrants and provided support. Immigrants were able to blend in with this relatively homogenous population.
The Ghadar Party , a group in California that campaigned for Indian independence , facilitated illegal crossing of the Mexican border, using funds from this migration "as a means to bolster the party's finances".
It is estimated that between and , about 1, to 2, Indian immigrants entered the U. Indians started moving up the social ladder by getting higher education.
However, he committed suicide at the age of 46 while he was suffering from depression. Another student, Yellapragada Subbarow , came to the U.
He became a biochemist at Harvard University , and he "discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate ATP as an energy source in cells, and developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer.
It also allowed Indian immigrants to naturalize and become citizens of the U. Bhagat Singh Thind. In that year, Indian Americans were registered residents in 43 states.
The majority of Indian Americans on the west coast were in rural areas, but on the east coast they became residents of urban areas.
In the s, the prices of the land increased, and the Bracero program brought thousands of Mexican guest workers to work on farms, which helped shift second-generation Indian American farmers into "commercial, nonagricultural occupations, from running small shops and grocery stores, to operating taxi services and becoming engineers.
By the s, Gujaratis had come to "dominate the industry. From onward, the flow of Indian immigration increased significantly, reaching a high of about 90, immigrants in the year The beginning of the 21st century marked a huge significance in the migration trend from India to the United States.
The implementation of Privatization and liberalization had changed the entire outflow of migrants. In the last twenty years, a large number of students have started migrating to the United States to pursue higher education.
A variety of estimates state that over , Indian American students attend higher-education institutions in any given year. According to the United States Census ,  the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from almost 1,, in 0.
Census Bureau , comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States;  New York City itself also contains by far the highest Indian American population of any individual city in North America, estimated at , as of These were all primarily Sikh settlements.
While the table above provides a picture of the population of Indian American alone and Asian Americans alone in some of the metropolitan areas of the US, it is incomplete as it does not include multi-racial Asian Americans.
Jersey City, NJ - In , of the 1,, legal immigrants to the United States, 58, were from India. Between and , , Indian immigrants were admitted to the U.
The average growth rate for the U. Indians comprise In , the Indian-born population in the U. According to the U. Census Bureau, between and , the Indian population in the U.
Many of them came from very humble origins, for example the current google CEO " Sundar Pichai did not have the privilege of watching television or travelling by car during his childhood.
Born and raised in a middle class household, Mr. Pichai used to sleep with his brother in the living room of their two-room apartment that barely had any technology.
Despite facing these hardships of everyday life in India, Pichai had a gleam in his eyes of sheer ambition and relentless pursuit.
Indian Americans continuously outpace every other ethnic group socioeconomically per U. Census statistics. The median household income for Indian immigrants in was much higher than that of the overall foreign- and native-born populations.
Indians overall have much higher incomes than the total foreign and native-born populations. By far they are the richest and most successful ethnic group in the USA due to many factors including relatively low wages for highly skilled workers in India which creates an incentive for highly skilled Indians to seek better-paid career opportunities overseas.
In , Indian immigrants were less likely to be in poverty 5 percent than immigrants overall 14 percent or the U. There are also some radio stations broadcasting in Tamil within these communities.
There is also an American cricket channel called Willow. Many metropolitan areas with large Indian American populations now have movie theaters which specialize in showing Indian movies , especially from Tollywood Telugu and Bollywood Hindi.
In , the film Not a Feather, but a Dot directed by Teju Prasad, was released which investigates the history, perceptions and changes in the Indian American community over the last century.
Religious Makeup of Indian-Americans . Today there are many Sikh Gurudwaras, Hindu temples, Christian churches, and Buddhist and Jain temples in all 50 states.
Some have claimed that as of , the American Hindu population was around 2. Regardless, Hindus are the majority of Indian Americans.
Today, many Hindu temples , most of them built by Indian Americans, have emerged in different cities and towns in the United States.
Kriya Yoga was introduced to America by Paramahansa Yogananda. There are nearly 30 million Sikhs around the world today, and a vast majority of them live in the Indian state of Punjab.
There is also a robust and flourishing diaspora, with communities large and small all over the globe. Much of the diaspora is concentrated in the Commonwealth due to migration within the British Empire , yet Sikhs continue to establish themselves in various countries throughout the world.
From the time of their arrival in the late s, Sikh men and women have been making notable contributions to American society. In , there were estimated to be between , and , Sikhs living in the United States, with largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, and Austin.
The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. Sikh men are typically identifiable by their unshorn beards and turbans head coverings , articles of their faith.
Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early s. The US has since become a center of the Jain diaspora.
Indian Muslim Americans also congregate with other American Muslims , including those from Pakistan , Nepal , Sri Lanka , Bhutan , Myanmar and Bangladesh when there are events particularly related to their faith and religious believes as the same can be applied for any other religious community, but there are prominent organizations such as the Indian Muslim Council — USA.
Saint Thomas Christians from Kerala have established their own places of worship across the United States. The website USIndian.
Thomas Christian Churches in the US. Like the terms "Asian American" or "South Asian American", the term "Indian American" is also an umbrella label applying to a variety of views, values, lifestyles, and appearances.
Although Asian-Indian Americans retain a high ethnic identity, they are known to assimilate into American culture while at the same time keeping the culture of their ancestors.
The United States is home to various associations that promote Indian languages and cultures. According to the official U. In previous decades, Indian Americans were also variously classified as White American , the "Hindu race", and "other".
Unlike many countries, India does not allow dual citizenship. Raghuram Rajan . In the s, a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City, New Jersey with violence and harassment.
Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus mainly of Indian origin have also been documented. Since the September 11, attacks , there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes.
In one example, a Sikh , Balbir Singh Sodhi , was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist.
This happened after September 11 , and the murderer claimed that his turban made him think that the victim was a Middle Eastern American.
Louis , fueling the stereotype that gas stations are owned by Indians and other South Asians. She clarified in the speech later that she was just joking, but still received some criticism for the statement later on for which she apologized again.
On April 5, , the Hindu Mandir of Minnesota was vandalized allegedly on the basis of religious discrimination. On August 11, , Senator George Allen allegedly referred to an opponent's political staffer of Indian ancestry as " macaca " and commenting, "Welcome to America, to the real world of Virginia".
In , then Delaware Senator and former U. You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent.
I'm not joking. On February 22, , recent immigrants Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani were shot at a bar in Olathe, Kansas by Adam Purinton, a white American who mistook them for persons of Middle Eastern descent, yelling "get out of my country" and "terrorist".
Kuchibhotla died instantly while Madasani was injured, but later recovered. Indians are among the largest ethnic groups legally immigrating to the United States.
The immigration of Indians has taken place in several waves since the first Indian came to the United States in the s.
Another significant wave followed in the s which mainly included students and professionals. The elimination of immigration quotas in spurred successively larger waves of immigrants in the late s and early s.
With the technology boom of the s, the largest influx of Indians arrived between and This latter group has also caused surge in the application for various immigration benefits including applications for green card.
This has resulted in long waiting periods for people born in India from receiving these benefits. As of , over , Indians were on the visa wait list, third only to Mexico and The Philippines.
Insgesamt wurden rund Dies führte zu Konflikten mit den traditionell dort ansässigen Indianerstämmen. Ende des Jahrhunderts hatten die europäischen Einwanderer sämtliche Indianer unterworfen.
Die Indianer konnten aufgrund ihrer nunmehr sehr kleinen Ländereien und da das Wild sehr stark dezimiert wurde, nicht mehr als Jäger und Sammler leben, wie es zum Beispiel die Indianer der Plains vor der Reservatszeit getan hatten.
Den Erwachsenen wurden willkürlich Arbeiten aufgezwungen und die Kinder wurden von ihren Eltern getrennt und auf Internatsschulen gebracht.
Da die traditionellen Religionen eine zentrale Rolle für den Zusammenhalt indianischer Kulturen spielten, wurden religiöse Zeremonien insbesondere der Sonnentanz unter Androhung von Strafverfolgung verboten.
Ihr Leben ist jedoch nach wie vor geprägt von Rassendiskriminierung und Armut. Als solche können sie nicht über sich selbst entscheiden, sind jedoch von jeglichen Steuern befreit.
Bereits zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts senkte das kanadische Department of Indian Affairs Amt für Indianerangelegenheiten die vertraglich zugesicherten Lebensmittelrationen für Indianer.
Bis in die er Jahre wurden indianische Kinder — in Kanada wie in den Vereinigten Staaten — früh aus ihren Familien gerissen und in meist kirchliche Internate gesteckt.
Dort durften sie nicht ihre Stammessprache sprechen und mussten das Christentum annehmen. Später kamen seelische und körperliche Misshandlungen an die Öffentlichkeit.
Junge indianische Frauen wurden teilweise unter Zwang sterilisiert. In der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts gelangten die Indianer zu einigen Rechten.
So erhielten sie in Kanada das Wahlrecht auf Bundesebene. Die ersten Missionsversuche waren allerdings nahezu alle erfolglos, da den Indianern der Gedanke einer Universalreligion und einer Bekehrung fremd war.
Erst erhebliche Probleme, die den Erfahrungsschatz der Menschen sprengte — wie Alkoholismus, neue Seuchen oder ein drastischer sozialer Wandel durch den Kontakt mit den Eroberern — eröffneten dem Christentum Chancen.
Der Erfolg hing dann sehr vom persönlichen Geschick, dem kulturellen Einfühlungsvermögen und der Integrationsbereitschaft des jeweiligen Missionars ab.
Vielfach bedienten sich die Kirchenleute indigener Prediger und Katecheten als Helfer. Diese Praxis hatte zur Folge, dass die christliche Botschaft zum Teil stark verfälscht bzw.
Tatsächlich waren die Europäer den Indianern militärisch und technologisch überlegen. Dieses Bild rührte sowohl von frühen Berichten europäischer Seefahrer her, aber auch von freiwilligen oder erzwungenen Besuchen der Indianer in Europa.
Etwa zur selben Zeit brachte Sebastian Cabot die ersten nordamerikanischen Indianer als Attraktionen an die englischen Höfe und Jacques Cartier die ersten an die französischen Höfe.
Gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts wandelte sich das europäische Bild der Indianer ins Gegenteil. Eigenschaften, welche die Indianer von den Europäern unterschieden, wurden nun nicht mehr negativ, sondern positiv interpretiert.
So sahen die Europäer die Indianer nicht mehr als primitiv, faul und kindlich unvernünftig an, sondern als anspruchslos, ruhig und unschuldig.
Vom Jahrhundert bis in die erste Hälfte des Jahrhunderts begann sich allmählich ein differenzierteres Bild durchzusetzen.
Bereits früher waren indianische Organisationen entstanden, die allerdings nicht bei allen Stämmen Unterstützung fanden. Er verstand es als seine Aufgabe, in der amerikanischen Bevölkerung Öffentlichkeitsarbeit zum besseren Verständnis der indianischen Kultur und Situation zu leisten und sich für die Bewahrung der traditionellen kulturellen Werte einzusetzen.
Mit den Jahren stieg die Unzufriedenheit insbesondere unter den jüngeren Mitgliedern. Viele Indianer waren enttäuscht über das langsame Vorgehen des Kongresses.
Letztere in den Städten entstandene Bewegung sorgte Ende der er und anfangs der er Jahre mit ihren zum Teil recht militanten Aktionen für Schlagzeilen.
Nach 19 Monaten brachen die Indianer ihre Besetzung ab. Diese war und ist für die dort lebenden Lakota von geschichtsträchtiger Bedeutung.
Rund bewaffnete Indianer protestierten so gegen die korrupte Stammesregierung unter Richard Wilson. Die Besetzung dauerte 71 Tage.
Er gewann kontinuierlich an Einfluss. Vereinte er rund 2. Ihr Ziel ist es, die Traditionen der Indianer zu bewahren und deren Selbstbestimmungsrecht zu erlangen.
So entstand die Organisation Incomindios Schweiz , die indigenen Vertretern unter anderem ermöglicht, jährlich während einer Woche in Genf an der UNO ihre Probleme zu schildern und ihre Forderungen zu stellen.
Auch im Jahrhundert kämpfen einige indianische Gruppen um ihre Rechte von Norden nach Süden :. Die Indianerpolitik der Vereinigten Staaten war bis zur Mitte der er Jahre stark auf kulturelle Anpassung und Eingliederung ausgerichtet.
Sie dürfen sowohl in zivilrechtlicher wie auch in strafrechtlicher Hinsicht Gesetze und Bestimmungen erlassen, Konzessionen erteilen oder Menschen aus ihrem Hoheitsgebiet ausweisen.
Für die Verwaltung von Die Zahl der anerkannten Indianer wächst schnell; der Anteil der in Städten lebenden Indianer noch schneller.
Heute haben acht von zehn Personen mit indianischer Abstammung auch nicht-indianische Vorfahren und Ausgrenzungen und Benachteiligungen gehören weitgehend der Vergangenheit an.
Weitere 1,6 Millionen gaben an, teilweise indianischer Abstammung zu sein. Die US-Indianer besitzen rund Diese Zahl ist aufgrund von Landstreitigkeiten umstritten.
Allerdings definiert jeder Stamm seine Mitglieder unterschiedlich. Die Cherokee handhaben ihre Mitgliedschaft wesentlich einfacher.
Um als Cherokee zu gelten, muss man belegen können, dass ein Vorfahre auf der Dawes-Liste geführt ist. Die Dawes-Liste entstand von bis und registrierte alle Indianer der fünf zivilisierten Nationen.
Etliche kleinere Stämme kämpfen um ihre Anerkennung als solche. Um als Indianer-Stamm anerkannt zu werden, müssen die Antragsteller ihre indianische Herkunft über viele Generationen nachweisen.
Dies ist oft schwierig bis unmöglich. Im Bundesstaat Virginia beispielsweise wurden Anfang des In South Carolina erhielten am I det Denne isolation i og ved Beringlandbroen kan have varet mellem I blev autosomal DNA af et barn, som er mindst Implikationen her er, at der var en tidlig divergens mellem befolkningerne mellem nordlige og centrale og sydlige Amerika.
I var der omkring Forskningen antyder, at hovedgrunden var epidemiske sygdomme. En tredje ekspedition forlod Panama i Alligevel valgte Pizarro at skille sig af med Atahualpa.
Oprindelige folk i Mexico har ret til fri selvbestemmelse under anden artikel i landets lovgivning. I henhold til disse er oprindelige folk givet:.
I boede der I dag er der i Belize omkring 6. Amazonasregionen i Colombia er sparsomt befolket, men mere end 70 forskellige oprindelige stammer har tilholdssted her.
Det er antaget, at flere millioner i 2. Mange blev assimileret i den brede brasilianske befolkning. I dag er der omkring stammer, og henved forskellige oprindelige sprog tales, fem af dem har mere end DenThe Hindu. Archived from the original on June 8, Not to be confused with Native Americans in the United Kapihospital.De. The oil crisis created a recession that hurt the automotive industry in Indiana. I dag er der i Belize Wo Ist Die Nächste Spielothek 6. Southern Professional Hockey League. Evansville has been a U. May 17, Jahrhundert weit vorauseilten und den Kontinent entvölkerten, bevor europäischstämmige Chronisten den ersten Kontakt mit den jeweiligen Bevölkerungsgruppen hatten und die Verluste registrierten. I blev autosomal DNA af et barn, som er mindst Als Bezugsjahr vor dem Kontakt gilt dabei zumeist das Jahr Department of Homeland Security.