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HauptwerkeWilhelm Richard Wagner (* Mai in Leipzig; † Februar in Venedig) war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller. Hauptwerke. Übersicht über die Hauptwerke von Richard Wagner, welche regelmäßig bei den Bayreuther Festspielen aufgeführt werden. Der Ring des. Richard Wagner gilt als Prototyp des deutschen Künstlers: genial, besessen, aufopferungswillig. Doch er und seine Familie verkörpern auch die Schattenseiten.
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Wagner developed a compositional style in which the importance of the orchestra is equal to that of the singers. The orchestra's dramatic role in the later operas includes the use of leitmotifs , musical phrases that can be interpreted as announcing specific characters, locales, and plot elements; their complex interweaving and evolution illuminates the progression of the drama.
Wagner's earliest attempts at opera were often uncompleted. Die Feen The Fairies , was not performed in the composer's lifetime  and Das Liebesverbot The Ban on Love , was withdrawn after its first performance.
Later in life, Wagner said that he did not consider these works to be part of his oeuvre ;  and they have been performed only rarely in the last hundred years, although the overture to Rienzi is an occasional concert-hall piece.
Die Feen , Das Liebesverbot , and Rienzi were performed at both Leipzig and Bayreuth in to mark the composer's bicentenary.
Wagner's middle stage output began with Der fliegende Holländer The Flying Dutchman , , followed by Tannhäuser and Lohengrin These three operas are sometimes referred to as Wagner's "romantic operas".
Although distancing himself from the style of these operas from onwards, he nevertheless reworked both Der fliegende Holländer and Tannhäuser on several occasions.
Wagner's late dramas are considered his masterpieces. Der Ring des Nibelungen , commonly referred to as the Ring or " Ring cycle", is a set of four operas based loosely on figures and elements of Germanic mythology —particularly from the later Norse mythology —notably the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Volsunga Saga , and the Middle High German Nibelungenlied.
In Das Rheingold , with its "relentlessly talky 'realism' [and] the absence of lyrical ' numbers ' ",  Wagner came very close to the musical ideals of his —51 essays.
Die Walküre , which contains what is virtually a traditional aria Siegmund's Winterstürme in the first act , and the quasi- choral appearance of the Valkyries themselves, shows more "operatic" traits, but has been assessed by Barry Millington as "the music drama that most satisfactorily embodies the theoretical principles of 'Oper und Drama' A thoroughgoing synthesis of poetry and music is achieved without any notable sacrifice in musical expression.
While composing the opera Siegfried , the third part of the Ring cycle, Wagner interrupted work on it and between and wrote the tragic love story Tristan und Isolde and his only mature comedy Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg The Mastersingers of Nuremberg , two works that are also part of the regular operatic canon.
Tristan is often granted a special place in musical history; many see it as the beginning of the move away from conventional harmony and tonality and consider that it lays the groundwork for the direction of classical music in the 20th century.
Die Meistersinger was originally conceived by Wagner in as a sort of comic pendant to Tannhäuser. When Wagner returned to writing the music for the last act of Siegfried and for Götterdämmerung Twilight of the Gods , as the final part of the Ring , his style had changed once more to something more recognisable as "operatic" than the aural world of Rheingold and Walküre , though it was still thoroughly stamped with his own originality as a composer and suffused with leitmotifs.
The differences also result from Wagner's development as a composer during the period in which he wrote Tristan , Meistersinger and the Paris version of Tannhäuser.
Wagner took 26 years from writing the first draft of a libretto in until he completed Götterdämmerung in The Ring takes about 15 hours to perform  and is the only undertaking of such size to be regularly presented on the world's stages.
Wagner's final opera, Parsifal , which was his only work written especially for his Bayreuth Festspielhaus and which is described in the score as a " Bühnenweihfestspiel " "festival play for the consecration of the stage" , has a storyline suggested by elements of the legend of the Holy Grail.
It also carries elements of Buddhist renunciation suggested by Wagner's readings of Schopenhauer. Apart from his operas, Wagner composed relatively few pieces of music.
These include a symphony in C major written at the age of 19 , the Faust Overture the only completed part of an intended symphony on the subject , some concert overtures , and choral and piano pieces.
After completing Parsifal , Wagner expressed his intention to turn to the writing of symphonies,  and several sketches dating from the late s and early s have been identified as work towards this end.
For most of these, Wagner wrote or rewrote short passages to ensure musical coherence. The " Bridal Chorus " from Lohengrin is frequently played as the bride's processional wedding march in English-speaking countries.
Wagner was an extremely prolific writer, authoring numerous books, poems, and articles, as well as voluminous correspondence.
His writings covered a wide range of topics, including autobiography, politics, philosophy, and detailed analyses of his own operas.
Wagner planned for a collected edition of his publications as early as ;  he believed that such an edition would help the world understand his intellectual development and artistic aims.
The first public edition with many passages suppressed by Cosima appeared in ; the first attempt at a full edition in German appeared in There have been modern complete or partial editions of Wagner's writings,  including a centennial edition in German edited by Dieter Borchmeyer which, however, omitted the essay "Das Judenthum in der Musik" and Mein Leben.
Ashton Ellis —99 are still in print and commonly used, despite their deficiencies. It is anticipated that the project will be completed by A complete edition of Wagner's correspondence, estimated to amount to between 10, and 12, items, is under way under the supervision of the University of Würzburg.
As of October , 23 volumes have appeared, covering the period to Wagner's later musical style introduced new ideas in harmony, melodic process leitmotif and operatic structure.
Notably from Tristan und Isolde onwards, he explored the limits of the traditional tonal system, which gave keys and chords their identity, pointing the way to atonality in the 20th century.
Some music historians date the beginning of modern classical music to the first notes of Tristan , which include the so-called Tristan chord.
Wagner inspired great devotion. For a long period, many composers were inclined to align themselves with or against Wagner's music.
Wagner made a major contribution to the principles and practice of conducting. His essay "About Conducting"  advanced Hector Berlioz 's technique of conducting and claimed that conducting was a means by which a musical work could be re-interpreted, rather than simply a mechanism for achieving orchestral unison.
He exemplified this approach in his own conducting, which was significantly more flexible than the disciplined approach of Felix Mendelssohn ; in his view this also justified practices that would today be frowned upon, such as the rewriting of scores.
Amongst those claiming inspiration from Wagner's music are the German band Rammstein ,  and the electronic composer Klaus Schulze , whose album Timewind consists of two minute tracks, Bayreuth Return and Wahnfried Friedrich Nietzsche was a member of Wagner's inner circle during the early s, and his first published work, The Birth of Tragedy , proposed Wagner's music as the Dionysian "rebirth" of European culture in opposition to Apollonian rationalist "decadence".
Nietzsche broke with Wagner following the first Bayreuth Festival, believing that Wagner's final phase represented a pandering to Christian pieties and a surrender to the new German Reich.
In the 20th century, W. Auden once called Wagner "perhaps the greatest genius that ever lived",  while Thomas Mann  and Marcel Proust  were heavily influenced by him and discussed Wagner in their novels.
He is also discussed in some of the works of James Joyce. Many of Wagner's concepts, including his speculation about dreams, predated their investigation by Sigmund Freud.
Wagner's concept of the use of leitmotifs and the integrated musical expression which they can enable has influenced many 20th and 21st century film scores.
The critic Theodor Adorno has noted that the Wagnerian leitmotif "leads directly to cinema music where the sole function of the leitmotif is to announce heroes or situations so as to allow the audience to orient itself more easily".
David Cronenberg and Melancholia dir. Lars von Trier. Not all reaction to Wagner was positive. For a time, German musical life divided into two factions, supporters of Wagner and supporters of Johannes Brahms ; the latter, with the support of the powerful critic Eduard Hanslick of whom Beckmesser in Meistersinger is in part a caricature championed traditional forms and led the conservative front against Wagnerian innovations.
I do not like all the music of Berlioz while appreciating his marvellous understanding of certain instrumental effects Wagner is not a musician, he is a disease.
Even those who, like Debussy, opposed Wagner "this old poisoner"  could not deny his influence. Indeed, Debussy was one of many composers, including Tchaikovsky, who felt the need to break with Wagner precisely because his influence was so unmistakable and overwhelming.
Wagner's followers known as Wagnerians or Wagnerites  have formed many societies dedicated to Wagner's life and work. Wagner has been the subject of many biographical films.
The earliest was a silent film made by Carl Froelich in and featured in the title role the composer Giuseppe Becce , who also wrote the score for the film as Wagner's music, still in copyright, was not available.
Jonathan Harvey 's opera Wagner Dream intertwines the events surrounding Wagner's death with the story of Wagner's uncompleted opera outline Die Sieger The Victors.
Since Wagner's death, the Bayreuth Festival, which has become an annual event, has been successively directed by his widow, his son Siegfried, the latter's widow Winifred Wagner , their two sons Wieland and Wolfgang Wagner , and, presently, two of the composer's great-granddaughters, Eva Wagner-Pasquier and Katharina Wagner.
Wagner's operas, writings, politics, beliefs and unorthodox lifestyle made him a controversial figure during his lifetime.
Wagner's hostile writings on Jews, including Jewishness in Music , corresponded to some existing trends of thought in Germany during the 19th century;  however, despite his very public views on these themes, throughout his life Wagner had Jewish friends, colleagues and supporters.
The characters of Alberich and Mime in the Ring , Sixtus Beckmesser in Die Meistersinger, and Klingsor in Parsifal are sometimes claimed as Jewish representations, though they are not identified as such in the librettos of these operas.
Some biographers have noted that Wagner in his final years developed interest in the racialist philosophy of Arthur de Gobineau , notably Gobineau's belief that Western society was doomed because of miscegenation between "superior" and "inferior" races.
Wagner's ideas are amenable to socialist interpretations; many of his ideas on art were being formulated at the time of his revolutionary inclinations in the s.
Left-wing interpretations of Wagner also inform the writings of Theodor Adorno among other Wagner critics. The writer Robert Donington has produced a detailed, if controversial, Jungian interpretation of the Ring cycle, described as "an approach to Wagner by way of his symbols", which, for example, sees the character of the goddess Fricka as part of her husband Wotan's "inner femininity".
Adolf Hitler was an admirer of Wagner's music and saw in his operas an embodiment of his own vision of the German nation; in a speech he claimed that Wagner's works glorified "the heroic Teutonic nature Greatness lies in the heroic.
While Bayreuth presented a useful front for Nazi culture, and Wagner's music was used at many Nazi events,  the Nazi hierarchy as a whole did not share Hitler's enthusiasm for Wagner's operas and resented attending these lengthy epics at Hitler's insistence.
Guido Fackler has researched evidence that indicates that it is possible that Wagner's music was used at the Dachau concentration camp in —34 to "reeducate" political prisoners by exposure to "national music".
Because of the associations of Wagner with antisemitism and Nazism, the performance of his music in the State of Israel has been a source of controversy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For others with the surname, see Wagner surname. For other uses, see Wagner disambiguation and Richard Wagner disambiguation.
German composer. The opening of Tristan und Isolde , featuring the 'Tristan chord'. See also: List of films using the music of Richard Wagner.
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NY Times ranked Wagner College 6. Forbes Top Colleges. Special kudos went to the Wagner College Theater program, which was ranked Number 3 in the nation.Ashton Ellis —99 are still in print and commonly used, despite their deficiencies. This final act!!! United Kingdom English. Accessed 24 December Stewart Spencer The earliest was a silent film made by Carl Froelich in and featured in the title role the composer Giuseppe Beccewho also wrote the score for the film Live Stream Tennis Stuttgart Wagner's music, still in copyright, Wagern not available. Industry WAGNER is a leading global supplier of systems and components in industrial surface technology with extensive experience in Montanablack Booster sectors. Holztrompete Wagner tuba. At a Glance. Prose works by Wagner Wagner, Richard ed. Potter, Pamela R. After Stonis Garage in Zürich, he expanded the story with the opera Der junge Siegfried Young Siegfriedwhich explored the hero's background. Magee —8. Translated by Rodney Livingstone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kaes, Anton